The Global 5 is based on the five core personality elements (Big 5) which have been empirically found in multiple cultures by multiple researchers when statistically analyzing peer and self rated personality trait inventories. The Global 5 elements are Extroversion, Emotional Stability, Orderliness, Accommodation, and Intellect.
The various Jung systems (MBTI, Socionics, Kiersey, etc.) come closest in usefulness to the Global 5 (compared to other systems), but only contain four elements. They say close to nothing about the Emotional Stability element. At least two of the four elements (Thinking/Feeling, Intuitive/Sensing) are not sufficiently unidimensional. For example, T/F covers aspects of Accommodation, Intellect, and Emotional Stability and N/S covers aspects of Intellect and Orderliness. This means a T could be an objective thinker, a selfish jerk, a stoic, or some combo of the three; there is no way to discern from the results. The Jung systems also pretend/infer that everyone fits into 16 types (most personality systems share this 'everyone fits one of our boxes' delusion). With five personality elements the least amount of boxes you can fit all people into with only general accuracy is 256.